The Book of Exodus is the second book of the Pentateuch or Torah, delving into the historical and theological fabric of the Israelite people. The title itself, “Exodus,” summarizes the central theme of the book, meaning “exit” or “departure” in Greek, signifying the withdrawal of the Israelites from the oppressive bondage of Egypt.

The narrative commences with the Israelites’ enslavement in Egypt, setting the stage for the emergence of a key figure, Moses, chosen by God to lead His people to freedom. Moses’ encounters with the Lord, including the burning bush and the revelation of the sacred name Yahweh, underscore the important theological revelations in the text. The subsequent plagues unleashed upon Egypt, each escalating in intensity, showcase the power of God and the resistance of Pharaoh to release the enslaved Israelites.

The heart of Exodus lies in the account of the Exodus itself, a miraculous event marked by the parting of the Red Sea, allowing the Israelites to escape their pursuers. This iconic moment becomes a symbol of divine intervention and deliverance, resonating throughout the entire book. The narrative also encompasses the giving of the Ten Commandments at Mount Sinai, providing a moral and ethical framework for the Israelite community.

Beyond its historical and theological significance, the inspired message presented in Exodus continues to be a cornerstone in understanding Judeo-Christian traditions and their broader impact on world history.

PURPOSE: The primary purpose of the Book of Exodus is to recount the liberation of the Israelites from Egyptian slavery under Moses' leadership. It serves to establish the covenant between God and His chosen people, providing moral and legal guidelines through the revelation of the Ten Commandments and shaping the identity of Israel.

AUTHOR: The authorship of Exodus is attributed to Moses, asserting that he played a central role in recording the events and laws detailed in the text. This traditional view holds that Moses, under divine inspiration, documented the historical and theological aspects of the Israelites’ journey from Egypt.

ADDRESSEE: Exodus primarily concerns the Israelites, the descendants of Jacob, who were enslaved in Egypt, but its message is crucial for all humanity.

DATE: The date of writing for the Book of Exodus aligns with the traditional belief that Moses was the author, placing the book's composition during the second half of 1500 BC or possibly early 1400 BC


Redemption and Liberation: The central theme of Exodus is the redemption and liberation of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt. God, through Moses, intervenes on behalf of the oppressed Israelites and leads them out of bondage towards freedom.

  • Exodus 3:7-10 (God's promise to deliver the Israelites)
  • Exodus 12:1-14 (The Institution of the Passover)
  • Exodus 14:5-31 (The Crossing of the Red Sea)

Covenant and Law: The establishment of a covenant between God and the Israelites at Mount Sinai is a crucial theme. The giving of the Ten Commandments and other laws reveals the covenantal relationship, outlining the moral and ethical principles for the Israelites to follow.

  • Exodus 19:1-8 (God’s proposed covenant with the Israelites)
  • Exodus 20:1-17 (Giving of the Ten Commandments)
  • Exodus 24:3-8 (Ratification of the Covenant)

Divine Presence and Guidance: The presence of God is evident throughout Exodus, guiding the Israelites in the form of a pillar of cloud and fire. The construction of the Tabernacle further emphasizes God’s dwelling among the people.

  • Exodus 13:21-22 (The pillar of cloud and fire)
  • Exodus 25:8 (God's desire for a dwelling place among the people)
  • Exodus 40:34-38 (The glory of the Lord filling the Tabernacle)

Testing and Faithfulness: The journey through the wilderness becomes a testing ground for the faithfulness and obedience of the Israelites. Their struggles and challenges are a backdrop for lessons on trust, faith, and God's provision.

  • Exodus 15:22-27 (Testing at Marah)
  • Exodus 16:1-36 (Testing with Manna and Quail)
  • Exodus 17:1-7 (Testing at Massah and Meribah)

Tabernacle and Worship: The detailed instructions for constructing the Tabernacle, its furnishings, and establishing priestly duties highlight the importance of worship and the sacred space for encountering the Lord.

  • Exodus 25:1-9 (Instructions for the Tabernacle contributions)
  • Exodus 26:1-37 (Details of the Tabernacle's construction)
  • Exodus 28:1-43 (Instructions for the priestly garments)

KEY VERSES: Although the book has many important verses, The Ten Commandments undoubtedly stand at the pinnacle.

Exodus 20:3 Thou shalt have no other gods before me.

 4 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth:

 5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;

 6 And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.

 7 Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.

 8 Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.

 9 Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work:

 10 But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates:

 11 For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.

 12 ¶ Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.

 13 Thou shalt not kill.

 14 Thou shalt not commit adultery.

 15 Thou shalt not steal.

 16 Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.

 17 Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.


Chapter 1-2: Israelites in Egypt, birth of Moses.

Chapter 3-4: God calls Moses from the burning bush.

Chapter 5-11: Moses confronts Pharaoh, plagues on Egypt.

Chapter 12: Passover instituted, Israelites leave Egypt.

Chapter 13-15: Crossing the Red Sea, Song of Moses.

Chapter 16: Manna and quail provided in the wilderness.

Chapter 17: Water from the rock, battle with Amalek.

Chapter 18: Jethro's advice to Moses.

Chapter 19: Israel at Mount Sinai, God's covenant.

Chapter 20: The Ten Commandments.

Chapter 21-23: Laws regarding slaves, violence, and justice.

Chapter 24: Covenant confirmed, Moses on the mountain.

Chapter 25-31: Instructions for the Tabernacle and priesthood.

Chapter 32: Golden calf incident.

Chapter 33-34: God's presence promised, renewal of the covenant.

Chapter 35-40: Construction of the Tabernacle, the glory of the Lord fills it.


  1. The Enslavement of the Israelites
  2. Moses’ Birth and Early Years
  3. Moses’ Encounter with the Burning Bush
  4. Miracles and Marvels
  5. Pharaoh’s Hardened Heart
  6. Renewal of God’s Covenant
  7. The Plague of Water Turned to Blood
  8. The Plagues of Frogs, Gnats, and Flies
  9. The Plagues of Livestock, Boils, and Hail
  10. The Plagues of Locusts and Darkness
  11. The Final Plague Announced
  12. The Observance of the Passover
  13. The Feast of Unleavened Bread
  14. Red Sea Crossing
  15. The Song of Moses
  16. Manna and Quail
  17. Water from the Rock
  18. Jethro’s Counsel
  19. Reading Mount Sinai
  20. The Ten Commandments
  21. Laws about Enslavement and Personal Harm
  22. Laws of Property and Social Duties
  23. Laws of Justice and Mercy
  24. Confirmation of the Covenant
  25. Instructions Concerning the Tabernacle
  26. Additional Guidelines for the Tabernacle
  27. The Altar and the Courtyard
  28. Priestly Attire
  29. Consecration of the Priests
  30. The Altar of Incense
  31. The Skilled Artisans: Bezalel and Oholiab
  32. The Golden Calf
  33. Promise of the Lord’s Presence
  34. Tablets and Covenant Renewed
  35. Rules for the Sabbath and Tabernacle Building
  36. Tabernacle Construction
  37. Crafting the Ark of the Covenant and Furnishings
  38. Completing the Altar and Courtyard
  39. Finishing the Priestly Garments
  40. Tabernacle Erection